Learn all about the types of denim. Denim is many things to many people and probably one of the most popular fabrics on the market. It is practical, hard-working, and a fabric used almost universally.
Types of Denim - History
Made from cotton, denim originated from the French city of De Nimes. The fabric was originally known as Serge de Nimes but the name has evolved over the years to denim.
When Jacob Davis and Levi Strauss first began making work clothes for miners from denim in the mid-1800s they had no idea how popular this fabric and the humble jeans would be.
What is Denim?
Today there are so many types of denim fabrics made from this basic twill weave. Twill is woven in such a way that it has diagonal ribs along it. Denim is primarily made from cotton but modern fabrics may have the addition of polyester or Lycra.
Denim is tough and versatile. It is a fabric that can get down and get dirty and hold its head up high on the fashion runways. Articles made of denim appeal to young and old. Follow the denim story from humble beginnings to one of the topmost fashion fabrics.
How to Sew Denim
In order to sew denim, you will need the correct needles, thread and sewing machine settings. Read how to sew denim.
Types of Denim
Stretch denim, crushed denim and stonewashed denim are all types of denim. Knowing the qualities of different denims helps the sewer to choose the right pattern for each type of denim.
This is a denim fabric that has not been washed or treated in any way and is the first stage of the denim journey.
It is dark blue in color and will slowly fade with washing. Because it is not treated, it is stiff to wear and will last a long time especially if you don't wash it very often.
Alternative names are dry denim or unwashed denim.
Sanforized denim is raw denim that has been treated for some shrinkage. Hardcore denim fans like the really rough and tough state of raw denim and the sanforized process stops the shrinkage from happening.
It is important to know if your raw denim is sanforized as if it is not you may need to go up a size to allow for shrinkage.
The label may refer to this type of denim as pre-shrunk.
Indigo Dyed Denim
This is the most common of the types of denim. Indigo dyed denim has the warp thread dyed while the weft thread is left white. This gives denim its distinctive blue look and results in the lighter look you see on the inside of denim clothing.
Indigo is the name of the blue dye that was originally used which came from an indigo plant. Today a synthetic version of blue dye is used but it has still retained the indigo name.
Color Dyed Denim
Sulphur dye gives denim its different colors. Mustard, green, grey, red and even pink are all colors that represent the denim color spectrum. These dyes may also be combined with other colored dyes to produce unique and colorful denim.
Selvage Denim (selvedge or self-edge)
Selvage denim has a color along the sides which is to prevent the edges from fraying. Generally when the selvage is used in the seams of jeans they are considered better quality. The selvage is often red or orange but can be any color depending on the manufacturer.
The alternative to using the selvages in jeans is to use the raw edges and overlock to prevent fraying.
Acid Wash Denim
To create acid wash denim, a pumice stone soaked in chlorine is used to scrub the fabric. It can also be produced with chemical acids put into the wash. The color scrubbed fades and produces the mottled, washed and worn look. This look was popular in the 1980s and has had numerous recurrences.
Stone Wash Denim
Stonewash is done with pumice stones to remove the dye and abrase the fabric to give a lived-in look. Stonewash is a little harder to control and may give an uneven abrasion. Items made from these types of denim do not last as long.
Crushed denim is treated to have a wrinkled or crumpled look. It is often used in conjunction with other processes such as acid or stone wash to give a truly worn look. These wrinkles will not come out in the wash
Poly-cotton fibers are mixed with the denim to create the fabric. It is soft and popular denim for clothing.
Spandex or Lycra can be infused into denim fabric to give it some stretch quality. This type of denim is a dream to wear as it is so comfortable and is mainly used for tight jeans.
Bull denim is a tough, sturdy denim that is made from 100% cotton. It is used for upholstery and curtaining as well as clothing and comes in a variety of weights. Evenly dyed in a variety of colors it is soft on one side and has a noticeable weave.
Ecru denim has not been dyed and comes in the natural color of cotton. It is a pale creamy color.
In organic denim there are no chemicals used in the cotton growth or manufacturing. Like all things organic, this is considered a healthier alternative to regular denim.
Types of Denim Embellishment
On top of so many different types of denim, there are numerous embellishment techniques that can be used. These include rhinestones, painting, applique and embroidery.
Types of Denim - In Conclusion
Denim crosses barriers of age and gender as it reigns supreme as a durable and fashionable fabric. Choose the types of denim that appeal to you and fit what you are sewing.
READ MORE ABOUT SEWING DIFFERENT FABRICS
- CHIFFON – Sewing Chiffon
- BATIK – What is Batik
- CANVAS – Sewing Canvas
- COTTON – Sewing Cotton
- DENIM – Sewing Denim
- FELT – Sewing Felt
- FUR – Sewing Fur
- KNITS – How to Sew Stretch Fabric
- INTERFACING – Types of Interfacing
- LACE – How to Sew Lace
- LEATHER – Sewing Leather
- RAYON – Sewing Rayon
- SHEER – Sewing Sheer Fabrics
- SILK – How to Sew Silk
- THICK – Sewing Thick Fabrics
- VELVET Sewing Velvet
- WOOL – Sewing Wool